Physical Chemistry

Measurement of lowering of vapour pressure

MEASUREMENT OF LOWERING OF VAPOUR PRESSURE (1) Barometric Method – Raoult measured the individual vapour pressure of a liquid and then the solution by this method. – He introduced the liquid or the solution into Toricellian vacuum of a barometer tube and measured the depression of the mercury level. – …

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Lowering of vapour pressure- Raoult’s law

In this subject we will restrict our discussion to Raoult’s Law COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES – Dilute solutions containing non-volatile solute exhibit the following properties : (1) Lowering of the Vapour Pressure (2) Elevation of the Boiling Point (3) Depression of the Freezing Point (4) Osmotic Pressure – The essential feature of …

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Solutions of solid substances in liquids

SOLUTIONS OF SOLIDS IN LIQUIDS – Solutions of a solid substance in a solvent are most commonly met with. – The process of solution of a solid substance in a solvent is explained by the electrical forces operating between the molecules or ions of the solute and the molecules of …

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Solutions of liquids in liquids

SOLUTIONS OF LIQUIDS IN LIQUIDS – The solutions of liquids in liquids may be divided into three classes as follows: – We will now proceed to consider the more important properties of these three classes of solutions. SOLUBILITY OF COMPLETELY MISCIBLE LIQUIDS – Liquids like alcohol and ether mix in …

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Ways of Expressing Concentration

Concentration of A Solution – The concentration of a solution is defined as : the amount of solute present in a given amount of solution. – Concentration is generally expressed as the quantity of solute in a unit volume of solution. A solution containing a relatively low concentration of solute …

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Measurement of Optical Activity

Optical Activity – Optical activity is one of imortant physcial properties of liqiuds – A beam of ordinary light consists of electromagnetic waves oscillating in many planes. – When passed through a polarizer (e.g., a Polaroid lens), only waves oscillating in a single plane pass through. – The emerging beam …

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Determination of Refractive Index

Refractive Index – The refractive index (n) of a substance is defined as the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuum or air, to that in the substance: – When a ray of light passes from air into a liquid, its direction is changed. This change of direction is …

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Viscosity – Measurement of Viscosity

Viscosity – Viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow. – A liquid may be considered to be consisting of molecular layers arranged one over the other. – When a shearing force is applied to a liquid, it flows. However, the forces of friction between the layers offer resistance …

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Determination of Surface Tension

Surface Tension – Surface Tension property of liquids arises from the intermolecular forces of attraction. – A molecule in the interior of a liquid is attracted equally in all directions by the molecules around it. – A molecule in the surface of a liquid is attracted only sideways and toward …

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