Organic Chemistry

Conformations of Cyclohexane: The Chair and the Boat

  Conformations of Cyclohexane: The Chair and the Boat ❒ Cyclohexane is more stable than the other cycloalkanes we have discussed, and it has several conformations that are important for us to consider. (1) The most stable conformation of cyclohexane is the chair conformation. (2) There is no angle or torsional …

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Acidity: Carboxylic Acids versus alcohols

    ❒ Carboxylic acids are weak acids, typically having pKa values in the range of 3–5. Alcohols, by comparison, have pKa values in the range of 15–18, and essentially do not give up a proton unless exposed to a very strong base. ❒ To understand the reasons for this difference, let’s consider acetic acid …

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Concept Of Hybridization

     While formation of simple molecules could be explained adequately by overlap of atomic orbitals, the formation of molecules of Be, B and C present problems of greater magnitude having no solution with the previous theory. To explain fully the tendency of these atoms to form bonds and the …

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Thermodynamics in Organic Chemistry

    ❒ For a reaction to be practical, the equilibrium must favor the products, and the reaction rate must be fast enough to form them in a reasonable time. These two conditions depend on the thermodynamics and the kinetics of a reaction, respectively. ❒Thermodynamics describes energy and equilibrium. How …

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Lewis Acids and Bases

Lewis Acids and Bases ❒ In 1923 G. N. Lewis proposed a theory that significantly broadened the understanding of acids and bases. ❒ As we go along we shall find that an understanding of Lewis acid– base theory is exceedingly helpful to understanding a variety of organic reactions. ❒ Lewis …

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Bond Dissociation Energy

  Bond Dissociation Energy   ** Bond breaking can be quantified using the bond dissociation energy. **The bond dissociation energy is the energy needed to homolytically cleave a covalent bond.   ** The energy absorbed or released in any reaction, symbolized by ΔH°, is called the enthalpy change or heat …

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