Globular Hemeproteins

Globular Hemeproteins

Globular Hemeproteins – Hemeproteins are a group of specialized proteins that contain heme as a tightly bound prosthetic group.  – The role of the heme group is dictated by the environment created by the three-dimensional structure of the protein. – For example, the heme group of a cytochrome functions as …

Read More »

Synthesis of Ethers

Synthesis of Ethers

Synthesis of Ethers – In this topic, we will discuss 6 methods for Synthesis of Ethers as follows: 1. Ethers by Intermolecular Dehydration of Alcohols – Two alcohol molecules can form an ether by loss of water through an acid-catalyzed substitution reaction. – This reaction competes with the formation of …

Read More »

Chemical Formula – Structural Formula

Chemical Formula - Structural Formula

Chemical Formula – The chemical formula for a substance shows its chemical composition. – This represents the elements present as well as the ratio in which the atoms of the elements occur. – The formula for a single atom is the same as the symbol for the element. Thus, Na …

Read More »

Entropy : Definition, Units, Solved Problems

Entropy : Definition, Units, Solved Problems

Definition of entropy – Entropy is a thermodynamic state quantity that is a measure of the randomness or disorder of the molecules of the system. – The symbol of entropy is S, while the change in disorder accompanying a process from start to completion is represented by ΔS.  – The entropy …

Read More »

Protein Misfolding: Amyloid disease – Prion disease

Protein Misfolding

– In this topic, we will talk about Protein Misfolding. Protein Misfolding – Protein folding is a complex, trial-and-error process that can sometimes result in improperly folded molecules. – These misfolded proteins are usually tagged and degraded within the cell. However, this quality control system is not perfect, and intracellular …

Read More »

Williamson Ether Synthesis : Mechanism, Examples

– In this topic, we will discuss the Williamson Ether Synthesis : Mechanism, Examples and Solved problems. Williamson Ether Synthesis – We have already seen most of the common methods for synthesizing ethers. – We review them at this time, looking more closely at the mechanisms to see which methods …

Read More »

Atoms and Molecules

Democritus’s ideas about atoms – The Greek philosopher Democritus (470–400 BC) suggested that all matter is composed of tiny, discrete, indivisible particles that he called atoms. – His ideas, based entirely on philosophical speculation rather than experimental evidence, were rejected for 2000 years. – By the late 1700s, scientists began …

Read More »

Macromolecules : Definition and Molecular Weight

Macromolecules : Definition and Molecular Weight

– In this topic, we will discuss the Macromolecules : Definition and Molecular Weight What are Macromolecules? – Colloidal solutions are formed by aggregation of atoms or molecules to give particles of colloidal size. – Macromolecules are substances which are themselves composed of giant molecules and dissolve in a solvent …

Read More »

Tertiary structure of globular proteins

Tertiary structure of globular proteins

– In the last topic in biochemistry in our website, we talked about: Primary structure of Protein , Secondary Structure of Protein. now we will discuss Tertiary structure of globular proteins. Tertiary structure of globular proteins – The primary structure of a polypeptide chain determines its tertiary structure. – “Tertiary” …

Read More »

Spectroscopy of Ethers : IR, Mass, 13C NMR, 1H NMR

Spectroscopy of Ethers

Spectroscopy of Ethers – Here we will discuss Spectroscopy of Ethers: IR Spectroscopy, Mass Spectroscopy, 13C NMR amd 1H NMR.  Infrared Spectroscopy of Ethers – Infrared spectra do not show obvious or reliable absorptions for ethers. – Most ethers give a moderate to strong C-O stretch around 1000 to 1200 …

Read More »

Heat and Temperature

Difference Between Heat and Temperature

Difference Between Heat and Temperature – Heat is one form of energy. – Many forms of energy can be interconverted and that in chemical processes, chemical energy is converted to heat energy or vice versa. – The amount of heat a process uses (endothermic) or gives off (exothermic) can tell …

Read More »

Protein Secondary Structure

Protein Secondary Structure

– In the last topic in Biochemistry section , we discussed The Protein Primary Structure but now we will talk about Protein Secondary Structure. Secondary structure of protein – The polypeptide backbone does not assume a random three-dimensional structure, but instead generally forms regular arrangements of amino acids that are …

Read More »

Applications of Colloids

Colloids - Applications of Colloids

– In this topic, we will discuss The Applications of Colloids. Applications of Colloids – Colloids play an important role in our daily life and industry. – A knowledge of colloid chemistry is essential to understand some of the various natural phenomena around us. – Colloids make up some of …

Read More »

Primary structure of Protein

Primary structure of the Protein

– In this topic, we will discuss The Primary structure of the Protein. Primary structure of Protein – The sequence of amino acids in a protein is called the primary structure of the protein. – Understanding the primary structure of protein is important because many genetic diseases result in proteins …

Read More »

Physical Properties of Ethers

Physical Properties of Ethers

– In this topic, we will discuss The Physical Properties of Ethers. Introduction to Ethers  – Ethers are compounds of formula R-O-R’ where R and R’ may be alkyl groups or aryl (benzene ring) groups. – Like alcohols, ethers are related to water, with alkyl groups replacing the hydrogen atoms. …

Read More »

Physical and Chemical properties of Matter

Physical and Chemical properties of Matter

– In this topic, we will discuss The Physical and Chemical properties of Matter and The Physical and Chemical Changes. Physical and Chemical  properties – To distinguish among samples of different kinds of matter, we determine and compare their properties. – We recognize different kinds of matter by their properties, …

Read More »