Side Reactions of Organometallic Reagents

Side Reactions of Organometallic Reagents

Side Reactions of Organometallic Reagents: Reduction of Alkyl Halides – Organometallic Reagents: Grignard and organolithium reagents are strong nucleophiles and strong bases. – Besides their additions to carbonyl compounds, they react with other acidic or electrophilic compounds. – In some cases, these are useful reactions, but they are often seen …

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Addition of Grignard Reagents to Carbonyl Compounds

Addition of Grignard Reagents to Carbonyl Compounds

Addition of Organometallic Reagents to Carbonyl Compounds – Because they resemble carbanions, Grignard reagents and organolithium reagents are strong nucleophiles and strong bases. – Their most useful nucleophilic reactions are additions to carbonyl (C=O) groups, much like we saw with acetylide ions – The carbonyl group is polarized, with a …

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Organometallic Reagents for Alcohol Synthesis

Organometallic Reagents for Alcohol Synthesis

Organometallic Reagents for Alcohol Synthesis – Organometallic compounds contain covalent bonds between carbon atoms and metal atoms. –  And Organometallic reagents are useful because they have nucleophilic carbon atoms, in contrast to the electrophilic carbon atoms of alkyl halides. – Most metals (M) are more electropositive than carbon, and the …

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Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols

Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols

Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols – we will talk here about some Acidity of Alcohols and Phenols. – Like the hydroxyl proton of water, the hydroxyl proton of an alcohol is weakly acidic. – A strong base can remove the hydroxyl proton to give an alkoxide ion. – The acidities …

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Commercially Important Alcohols

Commercially Important Alcohols

we will talk about some Commercially Important Alcohols such as:  Methanol , Ethanol , isopropyl alcohol (1) Commercially Important Alcohols: Methanol  – Methanol (methyl alcohol) was originally produced by the destructive distillation of wood chips in the absence of air. This source led to the name wood alcohol. – During …

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Physical Properties of Alcohols

Physical Properties of Alcohols

We will discuss here Physical Properties of Alcohols: (A) Boiling Points of Alcohols (B) Solubility Properties of Alcohols Physical Properties of Alcohols – Most of the common alcohols, up to about 11 or 12 carbon atoms, are liquids at room temperature. – Methanol and ethanol are free-flowing volatile liquids with …

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Nomenclature of Alcohols and Phenols

Nomenclature of Alcohols and Phenols

In this subject we will talk about Nomenclature of Alcohols and Phenols (1) Nomenclature of Alcohols: IUPAC Names – The IUPAC system provides unique names for alcohols, based on rules that are similar to those for other classes of compounds. – In general, the name carries the (-ol) suffix, together …

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Structure and Classification of Alcohols

Classification of alcohols

– In this subject we will talk about Structure and Classification of Alcohols. What are Alcohols? – Alcohols are organic compounds containing hydroxyl (-OH) groups. – They are some of the most common and useful compounds in nature, in industry, and around the house. – The word alcohol is one …

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Reactions of Alkynes

Reactions of Alkynes

Reactions of Alkynes – Many of the reactions of alkynes are similar to the corresponding reactions of alkenes because both involve pi bonds between two carbon atoms. – Like the pi bond of an alkene, the pi bonds of an alkyne are electron-rich, and they readily undergo addition reactions. (A) …

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Oxidation of Alkynes

Oxidation of Alkynes

Before we discuss Oxidation of Alkynes we will talk about triple bond of Alkynes What are Alkynes? – Alkynes are hydrocarbons that contain carbon–carbon triple bonds. – Alkynes are also called acetylenes because they are derivatives of acetylene, the simplest alkyne – The chemistry of the carbon–carbon triple bond is …

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Addition Reactions of Alkynes

Addition Reactions of Alkynes

Addition Reactions of Alkynes – Many of the reactions of alkynes are similar to the corresponding reactions of alkenes because both involve pi bonds between two carbon atoms. – Like the pi bond of an alkene, the pi bonds of an alkyne are electron-rich, and they readily undergo addition reactions. …

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Synthesis of alkynes

Synthesis of alkynes

Synthesis of alkynes – Two different approaches are commonly used for the synthesis of alkynes. – In the first, an appropriate electrophile undergoes nucleophilic attack by an acetylide ion. – The electrophile may be an unhindered primary alkyl halide (undergoes SN2), or it may be a carbonyl compound (undergoes addition …

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Acidity of Alkynes : Formation of Acetylide Ions

Acidity of Alkynes : Formation of Acetylide Ions

Acidity of Alkynes: Formation of Acetylide Ions – Acidity of Alkynes is the inportant factor of activity of Alkynes. – Terminal alkynes are much more acidic than other hydrocarbons. – Removal of an acetylenic proton forms an acetylide ion, which plays a central role in alkyne chemistry. – The acidity …

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The electronic structure of Alkynes

Electronic Structure of Alkynes

– we studied theThe electronic structureof Alkynes (a triple bond) in This subject: The Structure of Ethyne (Acetylene): sp Hybridization – Let’s review The electronic structureof Alkynes, using acetylene as the example. – The Lewis structure of acetylene shows three pairs of electrons in the region between the carbon nuclei: …

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