Analytical Chemistry

Solubility-Product Constants (Chemical Equilibrium)

  Solubility-Product Constants ** Most, but not all, sparingly soluble salts are essentially completely dissociated in saturated aqueous solution.  ** For example, when an excess of barium iodate is equilibrated with water, the dissociation process is adequately described by the equation:   Using Equation:     we write:     …

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Dilution of Solutions

  Dilution of Solutions   ** Concentrated solutions are often stored in the laboratory stockroom for use as needed. Frequently we dilute these “stock” solutions before working with them.  ** Dilution is the procedure for preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one. ** Suppose that we want …

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Molarity – Concentration of Solutions

  To study solution stoichiometry, we must know how much of the reactants are present in a solution and also how to control the amounts of reactants used to bring about a reaction in aqueous solution. The concentration of a solution   ** The concentration of a solution is the …

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Chemical Stoichiometry

Chemical Stoichiometry ** Stoichiometry is the quantitative relationship among the amounts of reacting chemical species. ** This subject provides a brief review of stoichiometry and its applications to chemical calculations. ** The stoichiometry of a reaction is the relationship among the number of moles of reactants and products as represented …

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Solutions and Their Concentrations

** Over the course of history, measurements and their corresponding units were invented at the local level. By necessity of primitive communication and local technology, standards were nearly nonexistent, and conversions among the many systems were difficult. The result was many hundreds of distinct ways of expressing concentrations of solutions. …

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