General Chemistry

Molecular Orbital Theory

  Molecular Orbital Theory ❒ Molecular orbital theory proposed by Hund and Mulliken in 1932 explains the formation of a covalent bond in a better way.  ❒ According to molecular orbital theory all atomic orbitals of the atoms participating in molecule formation get disturbed when the concerned nuclei approach nearer. …

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Electron Affinity and Electronegativity

  Electron Affinity  ❒ A neutral atom can accept an electron to form negative ion. In this process, in general, energy is released.  ❒ Electron affinity (EA) of an element: is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom to form an anion.   …

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Ionization Energy

  Ionization Energy ❒ The process of removing an electron from an isolated atom to form a positive ion is called ionisation. Energy will be required to remove an electron from the atom against the force of attraction of the nucleus. ❒ The ionisation energy (IE) of an element: is …

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Electron Configuration Of Elements

  Electron Configuration Of Elements ❒ We have seen before that to define completely the state of an atom it is obligatory to refer to all the four quantum numbers (n, l, m and s) of every electron in it. ❒ Since a simultaneous representation of all quantum numbers of …

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Pauli’s Exclusion Principle

  Pauli’s Exclusion Principle ❒  The nature of an electron, its position and energy, is fully implied only by mentioning the values of four quantum numbers ascribed to it. ❒ Each electron is, therefore, fully characterised by a set of four quantum numbers (n) – giving the size of electron …

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