Organic Chemistry

Hydroboration of Alkenes

Hydroboration of Alkenes

Hydroboration of Alkenes – We have seen two methods for hydrating an alkene with Markovnikov orientation. – What if we need to convert an alkene to the anti-Markovnikov alcohol? – For example, the following transformation cannot be accomplished using the hydration procedures covered thus far. – Such an anti-Markovnikov hydration …

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Oxymercuration–demercuration of alkenes

Oxymercuration–demercuration of alkenes

– Oxymercuration–demercuration of alkenes is another method for converting alkenes to alcohols with Markovnikov orientation. Hydration of alkenes by Oxymercuration–Demercuration – Many alkenes do not easily undergo hydration in aqueous acid. – Some alkenes are nearly insoluble in aqueous acid, and others undergo side reactions such as rearrangement, polymerization, or …

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Hydration of Alkenes: Addition of Water

Addition of Water: Hydration of Alkenes

Hydration of Alkenes will be discussed by Addition of Water Addition of Water: Hydration of Alkenes – An alkene may react with water in the presence of a strongly acidic catalyst to form an alcohol. – Formally, this reaction is a hydration (the addition of water), with a hydrogen atom …

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Common Uses of Alkyl Halides

Common Uses of Alkyl Halides

Alkyl halides as Solvents – Alkyl halides are used primarily as industrial and household solvents. – Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) was once used for dry cleaning, spot removing, and other domestic cleaning. – Carbon tetrachloride is toxic and carcinogenic (causes cancer), however, so dry cleaners now use 1,1,1-trichloroethane and other solvents …

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Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes

Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes

Electrophilic Addition to Alkenes Reactivity of the Carbon–Carbon Double Bond – All alkenes have a common feature: a carbon–carbon double bond. – The reactions of alkenes arise from the reactivity of the carbon–carbon double bond. – Once again, the concept of the functional group helps to organize and simplify the …

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Synthesis of Alkenes – Six methods

Methods for Synthesis of Alkenes – Six methods for Synthesis of Alkenes will be discussed as follow: (1) Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides – Dehydrohalogenation is the elimination of a hydrogen and a halogen from an alkyl halide to form an alkene. – dehydrohalogenation can take place by the E1 and …

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Alkene Synthesis by Dehydration of Alcohols

Alkene Synthesis by Dehydration of Alcohols

Alkene Synthesis by Dehydration of Alcohols – Dehydration of alcohols is a common method for making alkenes. The word dehydration literally means “removal of water.” – Dehydration is reversible, and in most cases the equilibrium constant is not large. – In fact, the reverse reaction (hydration) is a method for …

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Alkene Synthesis by Elimination of Alkyl Halides

Alkene Synthesis by Elimination of Alkyl Halides

Alkene Synthesis by Elimination of Alkyl Halides – Dehydrohalogenation is the elimination of a hydrogen and a halogen from an alkyl halide to form an alkene. – dehydrohalogenation can take place by the E1 and E2 mechanisms. – The second-order elimination (E2) is usually better for synthetic purposes because the …

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Physical Properties of Alkenes

Physical Properties of Alkenes

Physical Properties of Alkenes (1) Boiling Points and Densities – Most physical properties of alkenes are similar to those of the corresponding alkanes. – For example, the boiling points of but-1-ene, cis-but-2-ene, trans-but-2-ene, and n-butane are all close to 0 °C. – Also like the alkanes, alkenes have densities around …

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Stability of Alkenes

Alkenes

Stability of Alkenes – In making alkenes, we often find that the major product is the most stable alkene. – Many reactions also provide opportunities for double bonds to rearrange to more stable isomers. – Therefore, we need to know how the stability of an alkene depends on its structure. …

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Commercial Importance of Alkenes

Commercial Importance of Alkenes

Commercial Importance of Alkenes – Because the carbon–carbon double bond is readily converted to other functional groups, alkenes are important intermediates in the synthesis of polymers, drugs, pesticides, and other valuable chemicals. – Ethylene is the organic compound produced in the largest volume, at around 160 billion pounds per year …

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Nomenclature of Alkenes

Nomenclature of Alkenes

Nomenclature of Alkenes – Simple alkenes are named much like alkanes, using the root name of the longest chain containing the double bond. The ending is changed from -ane to -ene. – For example, (ethane) becomes “ethene,” (propane) becomes “propene,” and “cyclohexane” becomes “cyclohexene”. – When the chain contains more …

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Elements of Unsaturation

Elements of Unsaturation in Hydrocarbons

Elements of Unsaturation (1) Elements of Unsaturation in Hydrocarbons – Alkenes are said to be unsaturated because they are capable of adding hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. – The product, an alkane, is called saturated because it cannot react with any more hydrogen. – The presence of a …

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