Electron Configuration Of Elements

  Electron Configuration Of Elements ❒ We have seen before that to define completely the state of an atom it is obligatory to refer to all the four quantum numbers (n, l, m and s) of every electron in it. ❒ Since a simultaneous representation of all quantum numbers of …

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Pauli’s Exclusion Principle

  Pauli’s Exclusion Principle ❒  The nature of an electron, its position and energy, is fully implied only by mentioning the values of four quantum numbers ascribed to it. ❒ Each electron is, therefore, fully characterised by a set of four quantum numbers (n) – giving the size of electron …

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Quantum Numbers

  Quantum Numbers ❒ Bohr’s electronic energy shells or levels, designated as Principal Quantum Numbers (n), could hardly explain the hydrogen spectrum adequately. Spectra of other elements that are quite complex, also remained unexplained by this concept. ❒ Many single lines of the spectra are found to consist of a …

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Schrödinger’s Wave Equation

  Schrödinger’s Wave Equation ❒ In order to provide sense and meaning to the probability approach, Schrödinger derived an equation known after his name as Schrödinger’s Wave Equation.  ❒ Calculation of the probability of finding the electron at various points in an atom was the main problem before Schrödinger.    ❒ His …

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Heisenberg’s uncertainty Principle

  Heisenberg’s uncertainty Principle ❒One of the most important consequences of the dual nature of matter is the uncertainty principle developed by Werner Heisenberg in 1927. ❒ This principle is an important feature of wave mechanics and discusses the relationship between a pair of conjugate properties (those properties that are …

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Zeeman Effect

  Zeeman Effect ❒ In 1896 Zeeman discovered that spectral lines are split up into components when the source emitting lines is placed in a strong magnetic field. It is called the Zeeman effect after the name of the discoverer. ❒ The apparatus used to observe Zeeman effect is shown …

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