Work, First Law of Thermodynamics

  Nature of Heat and Work  When a change in the state of a system occurs, energy is transferred to or from the surroundings. This energy may be transferred as heat or mechanical work.  We shall refer the term ‘work’ for mechanical work which is defined as: force × distance. …

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Thermodynamic Processes

  Thermodynamic Processes ❒  When a thermodynamic system changes from one state to another, the operation is called a Process. ❒ These processes involve the change of conditions (temperature, pressure and volume). ❒ The various types of thermodynamic processes are: (1) Isothermal Processes (2) Adiabatic Processes (3) Isobaric Processes (4) …

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Thermodynamic Terms And Basic Concepts

  What is Thermodynamic ? ❒ Thermodynamics:  is The study of the flow of heat or any other form of energy into or out of a system as it undergoes a physical or chemical transformation. ❒ In studying and evaluating the flow of energy into or out of a system, …

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Molecular Orbital Theory

  Molecular Orbital Theory ❒ Molecular orbital theory proposed by Hund and Mulliken in 1932 explains the formation of a covalent bond in a better way.  ❒ According to molecular orbital theory all atomic orbitals of the atoms participating in molecule formation get disturbed when the concerned nuclei approach nearer. …

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Electron Affinity and Electronegativity

  Electron Affinity  ❒ A neutral atom can accept an electron to form negative ion. In this process, in general, energy is released.  ❒ Electron affinity (EA) of an element: is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to a gaseous atom to form an anion.   …

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Ionization Energy

  Ionization Energy ❒ The process of removing an electron from an isolated atom to form a positive ion is called ionisation. Energy will be required to remove an electron from the atom against the force of attraction of the nucleus. ❒ The ionisation energy (IE) of an element: is …

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