Types of Redox Reactions

  Types of Redox Reactions   Among the most common oxidation-reduction reactions are: (1) Combination Reactions (2) Decomposition Reactions (3) Combustion Reactions (4) Displacement Reactions (5) Disproportionation Reaction (1) Combination Reactions    ** A combination reaction is a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form a single …

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Bond Dissociation Energy

  Bond Dissociation Energy   ** Bond breaking can be quantified using the bond dissociation energy. **The bond dissociation energy is the energy needed to homolytically cleave a covalent bond.   ** The energy absorbed or released in any reaction, symbolized by ΔH°, is called the enthalpy change or heat …

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Acid-Base Reactions

    ** Acids and bases are as familiar as aspirin and milk of magnesia although many people do not know their chemical names—acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia). ** In addition to being the basis of many medicinal and household products, acid base chemistry is important …

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Metallic Bonding

  Metallic Bonding   ** The valence bonds that hold the atoms in a metal crystal together are not ionic, nor are they simply covalent in nature. Ionic bonding is obviously impossible here since all the atoms would tend to give electrons but none are willing to accept them. Ordinary …

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Precipitation Reactions

What are Precipitation Reactions ? ** One common type of reaction that occurs in aqueous solution is the precipitation reaction, which results in the formation of an insoluble product, or precipitate. ** A precipitate is an insoluble solid that separates from the solution. Precipitation reactions usually involve ionic compounds. ** …

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Brønsted–Lowry Theory for Acids and Bases

  Acid- base reactions      We begin our study of chemical reactions and mechanisms by examining some of the basic principles of acid–base chemistry. There are several reasons for doing this: (1) Many of the reactions that occur in organic chemistry are either acid–base reactions themselves or they involve …

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Interpreting IR Spectra

   ** IR spectra contain a wealth of information about the structures of compounds. We show some of the information that can be gathered from the spectra of octane and methylbenzene (commonly called toluene) in Figs.1 and 2. Fig (1) Fig (2) ** In this subject we shall learn how …

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Polar Covalent Bonds

Polar Covalent Bonds   ** In the H2or Cl2 molecule, the two electrons constituting the covalent bond are equally shared by the two identical nuclei. Due to even distribution of (+) and (–) charge, the two bonded atoms remain electrically neutral. Such a bond is called nonpolar covalent bond. ** …

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Hydrogen Bonding (H-Bonding)

  Hydrogen Bonding – (H-Bonding)   ** When hydrogen (H) is covalently bonded to a highly electronegative atom X (O, N, F), the shared electron pair is pulled so close to X that a strong dipole results   ** Since the shared pair is removed farthest from H atom, its …

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