## Phase diagram – Phase Rule

Phase Diagram – A phase diagram is a plot showing the conditions of pressure and temperature under which two or more physical states can exist together in a state of dynamic equilibrium. – The following figure is a typical phase diagram for a one-component system. – The diagram consists of …

## Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrohalic Acids

– In this topic the Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrohalic Acids such as HBr , HCl are discussed Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrohalic Acids – Tosylation of an alcohol, followed by displacement of the tosylate by a halide ion, converts an alcohol to an alkyl halide. – This is not …

## Derivation of the phase rule

Derivation of the phase rule – Here the derivation of the phase rule for one-component system and two-component system are discussed. – Consider a heterogeneous system in equilibrium of C components in which P phases are present. – We have to determine the degrees of freedom of this system i.e., …

## Degree of Freedom – phase Rule

Degree of Freedom – The term Degree of Freedom represented by F in the phase Rule equation (F = C – P + 2) is defined as follows : the least number of variable factors (concentration, pressure and temperature) which must be specified so that the remaining variables are fixed …

## What is meant by A phase and components?

The Phase Rule statement – The phase Rule is an important generalization dealing with the behaviour of heterogeneous systems. – In general it may be said that with the application of phase rule it is possible to predict qualitatively by means of a diagram the effect of changing pressure, temperature …

## Alcohols as Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Alcohols as Nucleophiles and Electrophiles; Formation of Tosylates – One reason alcohols are such versatile chemical intermediates is that they react as both nucleophiles and electrophiles. – The following scheme shows an alcohol reacting as a weak nucleophile, bonding to a strong electrophile (in this case, a carbocation). – An …

## Applications of distribution law

Applications of distribution law – There are numerous applications of distribution law in the laboratory as well as in industry. – Here we will discuss some more important ones by way of recapitulation. (1) Solvent Extraction – This is the process used for the separation of organic substances from aqueous …

## Henry’s law – a form of distribution law

Henry’s law statement – Henry’s law states: at a constant temperature the solubility of a gas in a liquid is proportional to the pressure of the gas above it. – Henry’s law may be mathematically expressed as C = kP where: C is the solubility (or concentration), k is a …

## Nernst’s Distribution Law + Solved problems

Introduction to Nernst’s Distribution Law – In this topic Nernst’s Distribution Law wlll be discussed – If we take two immiscible solvents A and B in a beaker, they form separate layers. – When a solute X which is soluble in both solvents is added, it gets distributed or partitioned …

## Biological Oxidation of Alcohols

– In this topic, the Biological Oxidation of Alcohols and their effect on the humans and animals will be discussed Biological Oxidation of Alcohols – Although it is the least toxic alcohol, ethanol is still a poisonous substance. – When someone is suffering from a mild case of ethanol poisoning, …

## Le Chatelier’s principle

Le Chatelier’s principle – In 1884, the French Chemist Henry Le Chatelier proposed a general principle which applies to all systems in equilibrium. This important principle called the Le Chatelier’s principle may be stated as : when a stress is applied on a system in equilibrium, the system tends to …

## Additional Methods for Oxidizing Alcohols

Additional Methods for Oxidizing Alcohols – Many other reagents and procedures have been developed for oxidizing alcohols. – Some are simply modifications of the procedures we have seen. – For example, the Collins reagent is a complex of chromium trioxide and pyridine, the original version of PCC. – The Jones …

## Calculation of Kc from Experimental Information

Calculation of Kc from Experimental Information – To determine the value of Kc of a reaction, write the balanced equation. Then write the equilibrium constant expression. – Substitute in it the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants and products found experimentally. Thus calculate the value of Kc. Solved problem (1) for …

## Oxidation of Alcohols

Oxidation of Alcohols – Primary and secondary alcohols are easily oxidized (Oxidation of Alcohols)  by a variety of reagents, including chromium oxides, permanganate, nitric acid, and even household bleach (NaOCl, sodium hypochlorite). – The choice of reagent depends on the amount and value of the alcohol. – We use cheap …

## Equilibrium Constant Expression

Equilibrium constant: Equilibrium law – Now we will find the Expression of Equilibrium Constant. – Let us consider a general reaction A + B ↔ C + D – and let [A], [B], [C] and [D] represent the molar concentrations of A, B, C and D at the equilibrium point. …

## Oxidation states of Alcohols and Related Functional Groups

Oxidation states of Alcohols and Related Functional Groups – Oxidation states of Alcohols leads to ketones, aldehydes, and carboxylic acids. – These functional groups, in turn, undergo a wide variety of additional reactions. – For these reasons, alcohol oxidations are some of the most common organic reactions. – In inorganic …

## Thiols (Mercaptans)

What is Thiols? – Thiols are sulfur analogues of alcohols, with an -SH group in place of the alcohol -OH group. – Oxygen and sulfur are in the same column of the periodic table (group 6A), with oxygen in the second row and sulfur in the third. Nomenclature of Thiols …

## Law of Mass action

Law of Mass action – Two Norwegian chemists, Guldberg and Waage, studied experimentally a large number of equilibrium reactions. In 1864, they postulated a generalisation called the Law of Mass action. – Law of Mass action states that : the rate of a chemical reaction is proportional to the active …