Phase diagram – Phase Rule

Phase diagram - Phase Rule

Phase Diagram – A phase diagram is a plot showing the conditions of pressure and temperature under which two or more physical states can exist together in a state of dynamic equilibrium. – The following figure is a typical phase diagram for a one-component system. – The diagram consists of …

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Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrohalic Acids

Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrohalic Acids

– In this topic the Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrohalic Acids such as HBr , HCl are discussed Reactions of Alcohols with Hydrohalic Acids – Tosylation of an alcohol, followed by displacement of the tosylate by a halide ion, converts an alcohol to an alkyl halide. – This is not …

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Derivation of the phase rule

Derivation of the phase rule

Derivation of the phase rule – Here the derivation of the phase rule for one-component system and two-component system are discussed. – Consider a heterogeneous system in equilibrium of C components in which P phases are present. – We have to determine the degrees of freedom of this system i.e., …

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Degree of Freedom – phase Rule

Degree of Freedom - phase Rule

Degree of Freedom – The term Degree of Freedom represented by F in the phase Rule equation (F = C – P + 2) is defined as follows : the least number of variable factors (concentration, pressure and temperature) which must be specified so that the remaining variables are fixed …

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What is meant by A phase and components?

What is meant by A phase and components

The Phase Rule statement – The phase Rule is an important generalization dealing with the behaviour of heterogeneous systems. – In general it may be said that with the application of phase rule it is possible to predict qualitatively by means of a diagram the effect of changing pressure, temperature …

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Alcohols as Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Alcohols as Nucleophiles and Electrophiles

Alcohols as Nucleophiles and Electrophiles; Formation of Tosylates – One reason alcohols are such versatile chemical intermediates is that they react as both nucleophiles and electrophiles. – The following scheme shows an alcohol reacting as a weak nucleophile, bonding to a strong electrophile (in this case, a carbocation). – An …

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Applications of distribution law

Applications of distribution law

Applications of distribution law – There are numerous applications of distribution law in the laboratory as well as in industry. – Here we will discuss some more important ones by way of recapitulation. (1) Solvent Extraction – This is the process used for the separation of organic substances from aqueous …

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Biological Oxidation of Alcohols

Biological Oxidation of Alcohols

– In this topic, the Biological Oxidation of Alcohols and their effect on the humans and animals will be discussed Biological Oxidation of Alcohols – Although it is the least toxic alcohol, ethanol is still a poisonous substance. – When someone is suffering from a mild case of ethanol poisoning, …

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Le Chatelier’s principle

Le Chatelier’s principle

Le Chatelier’s principle – In 1884, the French Chemist Henry Le Chatelier proposed a general principle which applies to all systems in equilibrium. This important principle called the Le Chatelier’s principle may be stated as : when a stress is applied on a system in equilibrium, the system tends to …

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Additional Methods for Oxidizing Alcohols

Additional Methods for Oxidizing Alcohols

Additional Methods for Oxidizing Alcohols – Many other reagents and procedures have been developed for oxidizing alcohols. – Some are simply modifications of the procedures we have seen. – For example, the Collins reagent is a complex of chromium trioxide and pyridine, the original version of PCC. – The Jones …

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Calculation of Kc from Experimental Information

Calculation of Kc from Experimental Information

Calculation of Kc from Experimental Information – To determine the value of Kc of a reaction, write the balanced equation. Then write the equilibrium constant expression. – Substitute in it the equilibrium concentrations of the reactants and products found experimentally. Thus calculate the value of Kc. Solved problem (1) for …

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Oxidation of Alcohols

Oxidation of Alcohols

Oxidation of Alcohols – Primary and secondary alcohols are easily oxidized (Oxidation of Alcohols)  by a variety of reagents, including chromium oxides, permanganate, nitric acid, and even household bleach (NaOCl, sodium hypochlorite). – The choice of reagent depends on the amount and value of the alcohol. – We use cheap …

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Equilibrium Constant Expression

Equilibrium Constant Expression

Equilibrium constant: Equilibrium law – Now we will find the Expression of Equilibrium Constant. – Let us consider a general reaction A + B ↔ C + D – and let [A], [B], [C] and [D] represent the molar concentrations of A, B, C and D at the equilibrium point. …

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Thiols (Mercaptans)

What is Thiols? – Thiols are sulfur analogues of alcohols, with an -SH group in place of the alcohol -OH group. – Oxygen and sulfur are in the same column of the periodic table (group 6A), with oxygen in the second row and sulfur in the third. Nomenclature of Thiols …

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Law of Mass action

Law of Mass action

Law of Mass action – Two Norwegian chemists, Guldberg and Waage, studied experimentally a large number of equilibrium reactions. In 1864, they postulated a generalisation called the Law of Mass action. – Law of Mass action states that : the rate of a chemical reaction is proportional to the active …

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Characteristics of Chemical Equilibrium

Characteristics of Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium is the state of a reversible reaction when the two opposing reactions occur at the same rate and the concentrations of reactants and products do not change with time. Nature of Chemical Equilibrium : its definition – Let us consider the reaction A + B ↔ C + …

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